Linking words

Linking Words – Tema 5 (Avanzado)

 

Linking Words to show contrast

 We use linking words to join ideas together when we’re talking or writing. Sometimes we want to link two ideas that are different from each other (for example, one is a positive idea and one is a negative idea) or we want to link one idea to another one which is surprising or unexpected. We can use linking words like ‘however’, ‘although’ and ‘despite’ to do this.

Although
We can use ‘although’ at the beginning or in the middle of a sentence. It is used in front of a clause (a clause has at least a subject and a verb that agrees with the subject).

  • Although the weather is bad, I love London.
  • I love London, although the weather is bad.

 

Despite / in spite of
We use ‘despite’ or ‘in spite of’ before a noun or a gerund. It can also go in the middle or at the beginning of a sentence. ‘Despite’ and ‘in spite of’ mean exactly the same thing. You can choose whichever one you like! If you want to use ‘despite’ or ‘in spite of’ before a clause, you need to add ‘the fact that’.

  • I love London despite the bad weather.
  • I love London in spite of the bad weather.
  • Despite the bad weather, I love London.
  • In spite of the bad weather, I love London.
  • Despite the fact that the weather is bad, I love London.
  • In spite of the fact that the weather is bad, I love London.
  • I love London despite the fact that the weather is bad.
  • I love London in spite of the fact that the weather is bad.

 

However
We use ‘although’ and ‘despite / in spite of’ to connect two clauses in the same sentence. On the other hand, ‘however’ isn’t used to connect two clauses. Instead, we usually put the two ideas in two separate sentences. We put ‘however’ in the second sentence, and we can put it at the beginning, at the end, or after the subject.

  • I love London.However, the weather is bad.
  • I love London. The weather, however, is bad.
  • I love London. The weather is bad, however.

 

Linking Words to show reason

We use linking words to join ideas together when we’re talking or writing. Sometimes we want to show that one thing happened because of another thing. We can use linking words like ‘because’ or ‘since’ or ‘due to’ to do this.

 

Words (or groups of words) that are followed by a clause

We can use these words at the beginning or in the middle of a sentence. They are used in front of a clause (a clause has at least a subject and a verb that agrees with the subject). They go before the reason. If they are at the beginning of the sentence, we put a comma in the middle to separate the clauses.

Because

  • We cancelled the picnic because it was raining.
  • Because it was raining, we cancelled the picnic.

As

  • We cancelled the picnic as it was raining.
  • As it was raining, we cancelled the picnic.

Since

  • We cancelled the picnic since it was raining.
  • Since it was raining, we cancelled the picnic.

For

We can also use ‘for’ to mean ‘because’. This is very literary and we don’t really use it in spoken English. ‘For’ can only go in the middle of the two clauses. We often add a comma before it.

  • We cancelled the picnic, for it was raining.

 

Words (or groups of words) that are followed by a noun

Because of + noun

  • We cancelled the picnic because of the rain.
  • Because of the rain, we cancelled the picnic.

Due to + noun*

  • We cancelled the picnic due to the rain.
  • Due to the rain, we cancelled the picnic.

Owing to + noun